Glossary of Cattle Terms
1st, 2nd, 3rd, Stage
The first stage of pregnancy in the cow covers conception up to the 3rd month; the second stage covers months four through six; the third stage includes months seven on out to the 283rd day.
3 in 1
Means a momma cow with her baby calf alongside, has been bred back and confirmed pregnant; selling ALL together as one package.
An animal that has been raised growth hormone free, antibiotic free, and no steroids given either by injection or digestion (in the feed) according to the USDA.
The actual net weight of the animal before any adjustment (shrink) or (slide) is made.
BQA (Beef Quality Assurance)
A national program that provides guidelines for beef production. It is funded /sponsored by the Beef Checkoff to raise consumer confidence through offering proper management techniques and a commitment to quality within every segment of the beef industry.
A cow that is starting to lose her teeth.
A breed that has been formed by crossing three or more breeds.
The proportion of lean salable meat yielded from a carcass.
A value expressed in 100 pound increments.
Temperament, the sum of physical, emotional and intellectual components that effect or determine the action or reactions of an animal.
EPD’S (Expected Progeny Differences)
The difference in expected performance of future offspring of a sire and dam compared to the breed of registry.
ET (Embryo Transfer)
The process of giving hormone injections to stimulate and multiply the ovulations in a cow in order to obtain eggs. Then artificial insemination is used to fertilize the eggs. After seven days the donor cow is “flushed” and the embryos are removed and seeded into a “recipient” cow.
An animal that has been produced from a typical purebred breed crossed with another purebred breed. Resulting in an offspring with “Hybrid Vigor.”
Feeder Calf Scale
A USDA standardized table for scoring the animal (calf’s) frame (height)[link to PDF] and body composition (muscling)[link to PDF] in relationship to its age.
The ribs are not visible when the animal moves and there is a round “thick” appearance through the rib and loin area.
“Free On Board” or “Freight On Board” refers to the physical place at which ownership (title) of livestock or goods passes to the buyer. The buyer is responsible for the shipping and its cost from this location.
The ribs are visible on the animal and the flank area seems drawn up or empty, there is no “roundness to the stomach-flat” and the rib/loin areas of the topline look under developed.
A female heifer that has calved once before she reaches 24 months of age.
Calves that are between 19 months to 24 months of age.
The ribs are slightly visible on the animal and some thickness is apparent along its topline.
OKIE’S Choice 1’s
An animal that is predominately Hereford, Angus, or Black Baldy or out of anEnglish breed type of cow. The number 1 refers to thickness (muscling).
A physical location which is engaged in the production-(breeding), and/or feeding, and marketing of cattle, that has been assigned a numeric number dependent on the legal descriptive of said location, within a specific state. The resident state and the U.S. Department of Agriculture record the information in a shared data base which is then shared with other U.S. states.
A preventative animal health program to raise the level of resistance and other pathogens before a disease can occur. In this program, calves are given respiratory /viral and intestinal (bacteria) preventing vaccines prior to weaning and then vaccinated again 14 to 21 days.
PVP (Process Verified Program)
A USDA approved Process Verified Program requires a company or business entity to implement a Quality Management System, based upon ISO 9000 standards, and to provide products or services which consistently meet specified product requirements. In the beef cattle industry, PVP's are usually used to verify the age and source of cattle for export to various foreign countries.
A branded name, “value added” program, created by the research done at Texas A&M University involving the vaccinations of calves pre-weaning and then again post-weaning against pathogens. Performance and carcass information is then recorded and the information given back to the producer.
A bull designated as a benchmark in progeny testing other bulls (young sires). Progeny by reference sires in several sires enable comparisons to be made between bulls not producing progeny in the herd.
A female calf chosen to become a producing dam (cow) in a herd. They are selected on the basis of weight per day of age, performance in nutrition, health, maternal pedigree, sexual maturity, frame size and soundness, and visual appraisal.
Any horny tissue that is attached to the skin rather than the bony parts of the head.
Producers of breeding cattle typically purebred and registered. They document pedigrees and genetic merits (EPDs). Seedstock operations are considered genetic suppliers and genetic improvement is the focus of their operations.
Is the evaluation of sperm morphology (structure) and motility (rate and percent of forward movement). Volume and concentration from a single ejaculation can also be measured.
A cow of “mid-age” which has all her teeth, but they show signs of wear.
Calves that are between 12 months to 18 months of age.
The loss of body weight an animal experiences when gathered, transported, or held.
Is the adjustment of the final sale price to accommodate a variance in weight. The value can be added or subtracted from the quoted selling price, depending upon stated weight range at “point of sale”.
A calf that is colored grey or “Smokey”, which is the off spring of a Purebred Charolais and some dominant black breed.
A cow that has lost all of her teeth.
Source and/or age verified programs were established for the purpose of identify cattle processed for human consumption. Moreover, export markets, where such identification has become mandatory in order for U.S. beef to become eligible for import from other countries; the program uses a “RFID” ear tag for the calf. The calf must be registered with one of the following in order to qualify: 1) breeds association, 2) packing plant, 3) management company, 4) feedlot. The ear tag is then matched to the ranch or “birthplace” of the calf. That location could also have a “Premise Number” which is part of a state and USDA data bank.
Sires used in a crossbreeding system where all their progeny, both male and female, are marketed.
The removal of the insensitive part of the horn.